torch.autograd.backward¶

torch.autograd.
backward
(tensors, grad_tensors=None, retain_graph=None, create_graph=False, grad_variables=None, inputs=None)[source]¶ Computes the sum of gradients of given tensors with respect to graph leaves.
The graph is differentiated using the chain rule. If any of
tensors
are nonscalar (i.e. their data has more than one element) and require gradient, then the Jacobianvector product would be computed, in this case the function additionally requires specifyinggrad_tensors
. It should be a sequence of matching length, that contains the “vector” in the Jacobianvector product, usually the gradient of the differentiated function w.r.t. corresponding tensors (None
is an acceptable value for all tensors that don’t need gradient tensors).This function accumulates gradients in the leaves  you might need to zero
.grad
attributes or set them toNone
before calling it. See Default gradient layouts for details on the memory layout of accumulated gradients.Note
Using this method with
create_graph=True
will create a reference cycle between the parameter and its gradient which can cause a memory leak. We recommend usingautograd.grad
when creating the graph to avoid this. If you have to use this function, make sure to reset the.grad
fields of your parameters toNone
after use to break the cycle and avoid the leak.Note
If you run any forward ops, create
grad_tensors
, and/or callbackward
in a userspecified CUDA stream context, see Stream semantics of backward passes.Note
When
inputs
are provided and a given input is not a leaf, the current implementation will call its grad_fn (even though it is not strictly needed to get this gradients). It is an implementation detail on which the user should not rely. See https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch/pull/60521#issuecomment867061780 for more details. Parameters
tensors (Sequence[Tensor] or Tensor) – Tensors of which the derivative will be computed.
grad_tensors (Sequence[Tensor or None] or Tensor, optional) – The “vector” in the Jacobianvector product, usually gradients w.r.t. each element of corresponding tensors. None values can be specified for scalar Tensors or ones that don’t require grad. If a None value would be acceptable for all grad_tensors, then this argument is optional.
retain_graph (bool, optional) – If
False
, the graph used to compute the grad will be freed. Note that in nearly all cases setting this option toTrue
is not needed and often can be worked around in a much more efficient way. Defaults to the value ofcreate_graph
.create_graph (bool, optional) – If
True
, graph of the derivative will be constructed, allowing to compute higher order derivative products. Defaults toFalse
.inputs (Sequence[Tensor] or Tensor, optional) – Inputs w.r.t. which the gradient be will accumulated into
.grad
. All other Tensors will be ignored. If not provided, the gradient is accumulated into all the leaf Tensors that were used to compute the attr::tensors.